Prevalence of depression in Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or hypertension: DEPTH Study
Introduction. Depression, a common psychiatric mood disorder, is a leading cause of disability and a significant contributor to the overall global burden of disease.
Aim. To determine the prevalence of depression in patients with controlled and uncontrolled type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and/or hypertension (HTN) in India. The association of depression with socio-demographic profile and clinical risk factors was also assessed.
Material and methods. In this cross-sectional epidemiological study, T2DM and/or HTN patients attending outpatient department at tertiary care hospitals and private clinics across 54 cities in India were enrolled. The primary outcome measure was to determine the prevalence of depression in T2DM, HTN and T2DM + HTN patients. Association of depression with patients’ demography, socio-economic status, anxiety, and clinically diagnosed insomnia were also investigated.
Results. Of 1829 patients, the prevalence of depression in T2DM, HTN and T2DM+HTN cases were found to be 51.03%, 46.94% and 48.64%, respectively. A higher proportion of patients with uncontrolled T2DM and HTN reported depression (T2DM: 77.64% vs. 22.36%; HTN: 72.49% vs. 27.51%). There was a significant association between anxiety and severity of depression across all indications (p<0.0001). Depression was significantly associated with complications in T2DM (p=0.0001) and comorbidities in T2DM + HTN (p=0.0023) cases.
Conclusion. Depression is highly prevalent and has a direct significant association with various socio-demographic variables and anxiety in Indian patients with T2DM and/or HTN.